The Cultural Capital of Morocco

Fes, also known as Fez, is the oldest of the four imperial cities of Morocco. The holds a significant place in Morocco. It is located in the north of the country, at the crossroads of the Atlas Mountains and the fertile plains. This city is also renowned for its rich and diverse heritage, medieval medina, prestigious university, and artistic and spiritual influence.

The historic Karaouiyine Mosque in Fes, Morocco, a UNESCO World Heritage site

History of Fes

The Birth of Fes

In the 8th century, Fez was founded by Idris I, the first Muslim ruler of Morocco and the founder of the Idrisid dynasty. He also established the city’s first mosque and settlement along the Fez River, consequently giving birth to what would become a remarkable city. As time passed, Idris II, his son, expanded Fez and created two distinct quarters: Fez el-Bali (Old Fez) and Fez el-Jdid (New Fez).

Fez’s Golden Age

Fez blossomed during the 9th and 10th centuries, attracting immigrants from Andalusia, Tunisia, and the Middle East. It became a center of culture, religion, and trade, with the illustrious Qarawiyyin University taking root. This esteemed institution, recognized by UNESCO as the oldest continuously operating educational institution in the world, nurtured brilliant minds like Ibn Khaldun, Ibn al-Khatib, and Maimonides.

Dynasties and Architectural Splendor

Throughout the 11th and 12th centuries, Fez witnessed the rule of diverse dynasties, each leaving an indelible mark on the city. The Marinids, in particular, transformed Fez into its golden age by making it their capital. They constructed magnificent madrasas, mosques, palaces, and gardens, fortifying the city with walls and gates. Bridges connected the two banks of the river, enhancing Fez’s grandeur.

A Hub of Trade and Cultural Exchange

During the 13th and 14th centuries, Fez flourished as a bustling trade hub, attracting merchants and diplomats from Europe, Africa, and Asia. The city’s arts and crafts thrived, with skilled artisans specializing in leather, pottery, metalwork, and textiles. The fame of Fez drew in travelers, writers, and explorers, who were captivated by its allure and shared its wonders with the world.

Challenges and Resilience

Fez faced numerous challenges in the 15th and 16th centuries, including invasions, rebellions, and external threats. Despite these difficulties, the city retained its cultural and religious significance. Furthermore, it welcomed Jewish refugees who significantly contributed to its trade and industry. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Alaouite dynasty revitalized Fez by restoring its infrastructure and prosperity. Additionally, Sufism thrived during this period, transforming the city into a center of mystical Islamic practices.

From Independence to Modernity

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Fez played a vital role in the Moroccan nationalist movement, fighting for independence from French and Spanish colonization. The city witnessed resistance and rebellion, while also embracing modernity through the development of the Ville Nouvelle district. Fez continued to contribute to Morocco’s politics, culture, and education as it entered the era of independence.

Preservation and Cultural Celebrations

Since gaining independence in 1956, Fez has been dedicated to preserving its heritage. Restoration projects have breathed life into the medina, which was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. The city hosts prestigious international events and festivals, celebrating its rich cultural tapestry through music, Sufi traditions, and visual arts.

Join us on this captivating journey through the centuries as we discover Fez’s vibrant history, architectural wonders, and enduring cultural legacy.

Culture and Attractions of Fes

Fez is a city that offers a unique blend of ancient and modern cultures, as well as a rich and diverse heritage. You can experience the authentic Moroccan life in the old town (medina), where you can find narrow streets, colorful markets, and historic monuments. You can also enjoy the modern and cosmopolitan side of Fez in the new town (ville nouvelle), where you can find elegant boulevards, trendy cafes, and chic boutiques.

Some of the landmarks that you should not miss in Fes are:

Fez’s Historical Treasures

Our first stop is the magnificent Qarawiyyin Mosque and University, a testament to Fez’s historical significance. Established in 859 by the visionary Fatima al-Fihri, this awe-inspiring mosque is not only the oldest in Fez but also the oldest continuously operating educational institution globally. With a capacity to accommodate 22,000 worshippers, it stands as a beacon of spiritual devotion. Don’t miss the chance to explore its treasured library, which houses rare and ancient manuscripts, and discover the luminaries it has nurtured, including the renowned Ibn Khaldun, Ibn al-Khatib, and Maimonides.

Architectural Marvels

Next, we venture to the captivating Bou Inania Madrasa, a true architectural masterpiece. Built in the 14th century by Sultan Abu Inan Faris, this exceptional Islamic school opens its doors to visitors of all faiths. Prepare to be mesmerized by the intricate wood carvings, mesmerizing stucco work, exquisite tile patterns, and inspiring calligraphy. The presence of a minaret and a clock, unique features for a madrasa, adds to its allure.

The Sights and Scents of Tradition

Our senses then lead us to the Chouara Tannery, an iconic symbol of Fez’s craftsmanship. As the largest and oldest tannery in the city, it offers an unforgettable experience. Witness the traditional methods of leather processing and dyeing, utilizing natural materials like animal skins, lime, salt, pigeon droppings, and plant dyes. Immerse yourself in the vibrant colors and earthy aromas, and perhaps find the perfect leather goods to take home as a memento.

Discovering Moroccan Arts and Crafts

For a glimpse into the artistic heritage of Morocco, we visit the Dar Batha Museum. Housed in a former royal palace from the 19th century, this cultural treasure trove showcases over 6,000 exquisite objects. Marvel at the intricacies of pottery, carpets, jewelry, woodwork, metalwork, and textiles, each reflecting the country’s rich craftsmanship. Take a moment to stroll through the enchanting garden, adorned with fountains, flowers, and trees, allowing tranquility to wash over you.

The Gateway to Fes’s Medina

No visit to Fez would be complete without passing through the iconic Bab Bou Jeloud, the gateway to the medina. This monumental entrance, constructed in 1913 by the French, is a striking fusion of architectural splendor. Its exterior boasts vivid blue and green tiles, whilst the interior is adorned with a mesmerizing display of blue and white. Surrounded by bustling cafes, tempting restaurants, and captivating shops, it serves as a vibrant hub of activity and a perfect spot to soak up the city’s vibrant atmosphere.

Exploring the Surrounding Region

Fez, however, is not just confined to its city limits. Venture beyond to discover the wonders of the surrounding region. Explore the imperial city of Meknes, with its grandiose palace and mesmerizing Roman ruins. Delve into the ancient world at Volubilis, where well-preserved mosaics and monuments transport you back in time. For nature lovers, a day trip to the Middle Atlas Mountains unveils breathtaking cedar forests, picturesque Berber villages, and encounters with the charming Barbary macaques.

Fes, a place where history, culture, and natural beauty intertwine, is ready to capture your heart and leave an indelible mark on your journey. Embrace the magic that awaits and immerse yourself in the wonders of this captivating city and its surroundings.


Fes is a city that will captivate you with its history, culture, and beauty. It is a place where you can discover the richness and diversity of Morocco, as well as the legacy and influence of many civilizations and cultures. If you are looking for an unforgettable and inspiring trip, Fez is the destination for you. To book your visit, contact www.moroccotravelexperience.com and get ready to explore the cultural capital of Morocco.